Fast solutions for complex problems

What are falling rocks called?

“A rockfall is a fragment of rock (a block) detached by sliding, toppling, or falling, that falls along a vertical or sub-vertical cliff, proceeds down slope by bouncing and flying along ballistic trajectories or by rolling on talus or debris slopes.” …

What is it called when a rock falls off a cliff?

A rockfall is a type of fast-moving landslide that happens when rock or earth falls, bounces, or rolls from a cliff or down a very steep slope. Rockfalls start from high outcrops of hard, erosion-resistant rock that become unstable for a variety of reasons.

When rocks move suddenly down a slope?

Rocks that fall to the base of a cliff make a talus slope (figure 1). Sometimes as one rock falls, it hits another rock, which hits another rock, and begins a landslide. Landslides and avalanches are the most dramatic, sudden, and dangerous examples of earth materials moved by gravity.

Why do rocks fall from a cliff?

Weathering loosens bonds that hold rocks in place. Triggering mechanisms like water, ice, earthquakes, and vegetation growth are among the final forces that cause unstable rocks to fall. This process is called “frost wedging” or “freeze-thaw” and can incrementally lever loose rocks away from cliff faces.

What is the effect of rock fall?

Rockfall causes extraordinary amounts of monetary damage and death, the former mostly by impeded transportation and commerce due to blocked highways and waterways and the latter as direct casualties from falling rocks.

What happens in a rock fall?

Rockfalls occur where a source of rock exists above a slope steep enough to allow rapid downslope movement of dislodged rocks by falling, rolling, bouncing, and sliding. Rockfall is a natural mass-wasting process that involves the dislodging and rapid downslope movement of individual rocks and rock masses.

What are the effects of rock falls?

Landslides: Human Health Effects Rockfall causes extraordinary amounts of monetary damage and death, the former mostly by impeded transportation and commerce due to blocked highways and waterways and the latter as direct casualties from falling rocks.

What is the difference between a rock slide and a rock fall?

While a landslide occurs when loose dirt or sediment falls down a slope, a rockslide occurs only when solid rocks are transported down slope. The rocks tumble downhill, loosening other rocks on their way and smashing everything in their path.

Which change can lead to slope failure?

Which change can lead to slope failure? the shearing stress on the material exceeds its frictional resistance (or shear strength) .

What is the difference between a fall a slide and a flow?

A fall or topple happens when rocks and other sediments fall through the air and land at the bottom of a slope. Flows are a mixture of water, rock and sediment. They move very quickly. A slide happens when a section of soil or rock suddenly gives way and moves down a slope.

Why do rocks fall so fast?

Acceleration of Falling Objects Heavier things have a greater gravitational force AND heavier things have a lower acceleration. It turns out that these two effects exactly cancel to make falling objects have the same acceleration regardless of mass.

What is rock failure?

Rock failure definition By rock failure, we mean the formation of faults and fracture planes, crushing, and relative motion of individual mineral grains and cements. Failure can involve formation of discrete fracture zones and the more “ductile” or homogeneous deformation.

Which is an example of rock falling down a slope?

1. rock at the top of a cliff suddenly falls 2. Rock and soil suddenly slip downhill in one large mass landslide (examples) 1. As you step on the mountain path, bits of rock and soil fall downhill. 2. During an earthquake, rock and soil move down a slope.

How to calculate the velocity of a rock falling?

A person standing on the edge of a high cliff throws a rock straight up with an initial velocity of 13.0 m/s. The rock misses the edge of the cliff as it falls back to earth. Calculate the position and velocity of the rock 1.00 s, 2.00 s, and 3.00 s after it is thrown, neglecting the effects of air resistance. Draw a sketch.

How to describe the motion of falling objects?

Describe the motion of objects that are in free fall. Calculate the position and velocity of objects in free fall. Falling objects form an interesting class of motion problems. For example, we can estimate the depth of a vertical mine shaft by dropping a rock into it and listening for the rock to hit the bottom.

Why do landslides occur in a sloping area?

Bottom line: Landslides are mainly caused by gravity acting on weakened rocks and soil that make up a sloping area of land. Both natural and human-related activities can increase the risk for landslides. Water from heavy rainfall is a frequent trigger for landslides.