# Short-Questions

Fast solutions for complex problems

24

## What are the 5 Hardy-Weinberg conditions?

There are five basic Hardy-Weinberg assumptions: no mutation, random mating, no gene flow, infinite population size, and no selection. If the assumptions are not met for a gene, the population may evolve for that gene (the gene’s allele frequencies may change).

## What are the 5 conditions for the Hardy-Weinberg principle and what is required for?

The Hardy-Weinberg model states that a population will remain at genetic equilibrium as long as five conditions are met: (1) No change in the DNA sequence, (2) No migration, (3) A very large population size, (4) Random mating, and (5) No natural selection.

What is one of the main uses of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

In population genetics studies, the Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to measure whether the observed genotype frequencies in a population differ from the frequencies predicted by the equation.

### Why is Hardy Weinberg not realistic?

Explanation: All of the answer choices are assumptions made when considering Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Thus, the model is not very realistic in nature, since these conditions are rarely met. Also, no natural selection is assumed to occur.

### Why is random mating important to Hardy Weinberg?

If allele frequencies differ between the sexes, it takes two generations of random mating to attain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Sex-linked loci require multiple generations to attain equilibrium because one sex has two copies of the gene and the other sex has only one.

What are the three types of natural selection?

The 3 Types of Natural Selection

• Stabilizing Selection.
• Directional Selection.
• Disruptive Selection.

#### Does the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ever really exist?

The HW equilibrium is used as a null hypothesis; genotypes occur in predicable frequencies and allele frequencies do not change over time. Actually, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium cannot exist in real life.

#### What do PQ p2 2pq and q2 represent?

p2 +2pq + q2 = 1 Where p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype, q2 represents the frequency of the recessive genotype and 2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.

Are humans in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

12.3. When a population meets all the Hardy-Weinberg conditions, it is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Human populations do not meet all the conditions of HWE exactly, and their allele frequencies will change from one generation to the next, so the population evolves.

## Why is random mating important?

Any departure from random mating upsets the equilibrium distribution of genotypes in a population. A single generation of random mating will restore genetic equilibrium if no other evolutionary mechanism is operating on the population.

## Does random mating affect Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?

The Hardy-Weinberg Law states: In a large, random-mating population that is not affected by the evolutionary processes of mutation, migration, or selection, both the allele frequencies and the genotype frequencies are constant from generation to generation.

What can natural selection act on?

Natural selection acts on an organism’s phenotype, or observable features. Phenotype is often largely a product of genotype (the alleles, or gene versions, the organism carries).

### What is 2pq in the Hardy-Weinberg equation?

In the Hardy-Weinberg equation, “2pq” stands for the frequency of heterozygotes. [q] When using the Hardy-Weinberg equation to analyze a gene in a population’s gene pool, the observable quantity that will let you figure out everything else is…

### How can the Hardy-Weinberg equation be calculated?

The Hardy-Weinberg equation used to determine genotype frequencies is: p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1. Where ‘p 2‘ represents the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype (AA), ‘2pq‘ the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (Aa) and ‘q 2‘ the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype (aa).

What is the Hardy Weinberg equation?

As such, evolution does happen in populations. Based on the idealized conditions, Hardy and Weinberg developed an equation for predicting genetic outcomes in a non-evolving population over time. This equation, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1, is also known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation.